Turkey’s President Tayyip Erdogan joined huge crowds on Friday for the first prayers at Ayia Sophia in nine decades, sealing his ambition to restore Muslim worship at an ancient site long revered in both Christianity and Islam.
After the call to prayer rang out from four minarets surrounding the mosque, whose rose-pink walls and huge grey dome have dominated Istanbul since Christian Byzantine times, hundreds knelt in prayer inside the building.
Outside, tens of thousands more prayed in a public square and on sidewalks, squeezing into spaces between cars or in cafes, joining a ceremony which many saw as righting a historic mistake when the mosque was converted to a museum in 1934 by modern Turkey’s secularist founder Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.
Ayia Sophia was the largest cathedral in the world for 900 years until its capture by Ottoman Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror in 1453, after which it was one of Islam’s most exalted mosques for nearly another 500 years.
“This is the opening of a place of worship that was conquered by the right of the sword by the holy conqueror,” said worshipper Latif Ozer, 42. “This is a source of great pride for us, great excitement.”
That excitement has not been universally shared. Church leaders and some Western countries have sharply criticised Turkey’s move, saying the shift to exclusive Muslim worship at Ayia Sophia risks deepening religious divisions.
Pope Francis said he was deeply pained by the decision, which came after a top Turkish court annulled Ayia Sophia’s status as a museum two weeks ago.
Erdogan immediately issued a decree converting it once again to a mosque.
In Greece, church bells tolled in mourning on Friday. A vast majority of Greeks consider the monument central to their Orthodox Christian religion. Greek criticism of the conversion has been scathing, underscoring the countries’ tense relations.
Greek Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis called Turkey a “troublemaker”, and the Ayia Sophia conversion an “affront to civilization of the 21st century”.
Several hundred invitees joined Erdogan for the ceremony inside the sixth-century building. Some, including his son-in-law and Finance Minister Berat Albayrak, could be seen recording images of the historic occasion on their mobiles phones.
The president, his head covered by a white prayer cap, read a Quranic recitation, choosing from both the Surah Al-Fatihah and the Surah Al-Baqarah before the head of Turkey’s religious directorate Ali Erbas addressed worshippers.
Newly installed white curtains covered an image of Mary and Jesus which would have faced the worshippers, but pictures of angels were still visible on arches supporting the mosque’s cavernous dome.
Officials say that glittering mosaics and other art in the main hall will be concealed during prayer time, but will remain uncovered in other parts of the building.
Earlier, crowds formed at checkpoints around the historic heart of Istanbul where massed police maintained security.
Once through the checks, worshippers sat apart on prayer mats in secured areas outside the building in Sultanahmet Square.
A large screen and speakers set up in the square broadcast proceedings to a crowd which Erdogan said was 350,000-strong.
As crowds grew, leaving little space for social distancing, Istanbul Governor Ali Yerlikaya said authorities had stopped people entering the area due to concerns about the spread of the corona virus.
On Twitter he called for patience and said the mosque would be open for prayer until Saturday morning.
After leaving Ayia Sophia, Erdogan went straight to the nearby Fatih (Conqueror) mosque, named after Sultan Mehmet who seized Istanbul for the Ottomans.
“Ayia Sophia will continue to serve all believers as a mosque and will remain a place of cultural heritage for all humanity,” Erdogan said at Mehmet’s tomb.
Source: Reuters London